30 May 2017
macOS version 10.12.0, called "Sierra," was released on 20 Sep 2016.
It is a free update to 10.11 El Capitan.
This note describes how to update a computer from an older version of MacOS to OS X 10.12 Sierra.
Apple released macOS 10.12.1 on 24 Oct 2016, making some features work better.
A deep security problem was fixed in 10.12.1 that could allow local applications to increase their privileges.
Apple released macOS 10.12.2 on 13 Dec 2016, fixing many security bugs.
Apple released macOS 10.12.3 on 23 Jan 2017, fixing security, graphics, and PDF bugs.
Apple released macOS 10.12.4 on 27 Mar 2017, fixing many security bugs.
You may wish to wait to install Sierra until you are sure it will work for you.
I have not installed Sierra and don't plan to until things settle down. See "Show Stoppers" below.
New Features of Sierra
- The operating system is now known as "macOS Sierra."
- Siri now works on macOS. You can ask it questions and it will provide answers by local or web search.
Sierra has user interface changes, including optional integration with iCloud.
These features will work best if your Mac has a high-speed, always-on, unmetered Internet connection.
macOS can automatically back up rarely used files to iCloud and delete them from your Mac, and get them back on demand.
macOS can also detect duplicate and obsolete files, and prompt you to delete them.
- The Photos application has new features.
- The Messages application has new features.
- The iTunes application has a new interface to Apple Music, and interface changes.
- Many applications now support tabbed windows.
- You can float a video window over the desktop or a full-screen app.
Several features support multiple Apple devices working together:
- Safari now supports Apple Pay on an iPhone or Apple Watch.
- You can copy images, video, and text on one Apple device and paste on another.
- You Desktop and Documents folder are available on all your Apple devices via iCloud Drive.
- Your Apple Watch will log you into your Mac.
Should I Install Sierra?
If your computer is working now, there is no urgent need to change your OS,
until you want the new features,
or continuing security updates (Yosemite and El Capitan are still getting security updates).
Apple will probably drop support for older versions of OS X eventually.
Usually they support the current version and the previous version.
Using an unsupported OS will still work,
but if security problems are found in an unsupported version, Apple usually does not patch them.
Eventually, companies will write software that requires features of the latest Apple OS,
and someday you may want to buy and use some of that software.
If your current Macintosh fails and you have to buy a new one,
you'll end up migrating to Sierra whether you were ready or not.
Check MacInTouch for the latest status. These are the ones that concern me.
that laptops running Sierra use up the battery faster and run hotter, with more fan noise.
Mail.app will not handle encrypted attachments correctly, even if you have installed the necessary certificates.
Some folks are missing mail attachments: this may be the same problem.
Converting large Mail databases after installation is very slow.
Time Machine logging has changed, and some users report that Time Machine is much slower.
Syncing Photos libraries to an iPhone using iTunes sometimes hangs forever.
Multiple users report unexplained USB disconnection problems. Devices vanish randomly from the Finder and data connections are lost.
Posts on MacInTouch suggest that installing Sierra updates the USB3.x firmware on your Mac, which may be an issue;
another theory is that USB3.x is more susceptible to radio frequency interference and needs better cables.
If your machine is new enough to have USB3.x support, this may be an issue for you.
Some users report unexpected behavior from the Cloud integration features:
if you enable iCloud Drive, the default is to turn on by default.
UNCHECK the Optimize Storage checkbox unless you understand it,
and really want to have your Desktop and Documents files stored in the cloud, and deleted from your Mac.
that Optimize Storage may be automatically re-enabled when you update Sierra to a newer version, so check the preference after updating.)
Videos will "autoplay": you can disable this in the FireFox browser address bar,
by going to about:config and setting "media.autoplay.enabled" to false.
Third party apps:
GPG's plugin for Mail is incompatible with Sierra: a fix is coming.
Logitech Control Center causes hard freezes.
iStat Menus may have some problems flooding the Console with messages.
Quicken Essentials does not run on Sierra.
People report problems using Aperture with Sierra.
Fujitsu ScanSnap devices
need a driver fix, coming in November: some models won't work and some previously scanned PDFs will turn blank.
A full package of drivers for Brother printers and scanners is scheduled for November.
Some Canon printers won't work until they get driver updates.
Some HP scanners won't work.
Wacom Bamboo tablets do not work.
What you Should Do Now to Get Ready for Sierra
- Use Software Update to keep all Apple software up to date, including the OS.
- Apply all free updates to other software you use.
- Set up an external hard drive and use Time Machine.
- Add more RAM if you can.
- Fix damaged and duplicate fonts.
- Use Disk Utility to repair permissions on your hard drive. (This is safe to do, and quick.)
If you are running a version of Mac OS X earlier than Snow Leopard, you will have to install Snow Leopard first.
You can buy an installer disc for Snow Leopard from Apple's web site for $20.
Who Can Update
Not everyone can use the new OS version.
Only fairly new Macs can run Sierra.
See the list online at the Apple web site that specifies what Mac models can run Sierra.
If your computer does not meet these requirements, stick with OS X 10.6 (Snow Leopard), 10.7 (Lion), 10.8 (Mountain Lion), or 10.9 (Mavericks).
- You need at least 2GB of memory, preferably more.
If you depend on PowerPC programs, the latest version of OS X that you can run is Snow Leopard,
since Lion, Mountain Lion, Mavericks, Yosemite, and Sierra do not support Rosetta, the PowerPC emulator.
See the Frequently Asked Questions section about Sierra.
In particular, pre-Lion Quicken, Microsoft Office 2004, and some features of Adobe CS3 will not run on Sierra.
(See Adobe article.)
Stick with OS X 10.6.8a until you upgrade these applications.
You could install VirtualBox (free) on your Mac, and install 10.6 into a virtual machine, and update it to 10.6.8a,
and run your PowerPC programs under the emulated OS.
I have tried this, and it works.
If you depend on the Classic environment to run Mac OS 9 programs from the 1990s, stick with OS X 10.4.
If you have a Mac with a PowerPC processor, Sierra won't work on it.
Stick with OS X 10.5.8.
You can't install Sierra over an ancient version of OS X:
Apple's license terms specify that Sierra is only for Macs that have
Lion, Mountain Lion, Snow Leopard, Mavericks, Yosemite, or El Capitan installed, and the installer enforces this restriction.
Old printers and scanners may not work if the manufacturer has not updated the driver software.
Those with PowerPC or 32-bit drivers will not work.
Plan your install
When you decide to install Sierra, do it carefully.
You may find that there are issues that affect you: do your homework.
Check MacInTouch to see if there are problems with OS X 10.12 that affect you.
Make sure you back up your entire disk before starting to install Sierra.
Preferably to more than one place.
Make a list of the hardware you depend on, and search the web to check that each device will work.
Older printers and scanners can have issues.
Leave yourself enough time.
Upgrading will tie up your computer for a big part of a day.
Installing takes an hour or two,
but then your computer will be very slow until it re-does the Spotlight index and does a big backup up to Time Machine.
Finding PowerPC Programs
PowerPC-only programs on your computer will not run on Sierra.
(System Profiler no longer lists the "Kind" of program in its Applications report.)
To list these programs, open a Terminal window and type
system_profiler SPApplicationsDataType | sed -e 's/ *//' | grep -A4 "Kind: PowerPC" | grep Location > ppc.txt
Many of these programs are not problems: they are leftovers from old software installers or previous versions of software.
For example /Library/Application Support/Adobe/AdobePDF.app. If you have questions, contact the manufacturer.
Particular issues before upgrading
Here is a partial list of minimum program versions needed for Sierra.
For other programs, check product websites, or RoaringApps.
|Microsoft Office||2011||No longer sold, works if already installed; needs an Outlook patch|
|Quicken||2007 "Lion Compatible" version 16.1.4||$15 upgrade|
|Adobe Photoshop||CS5||see Adobe site, must install Java 6, crashes on close?|
|Suitcase Fusion 7||17.3.0||$50 upgrade|
|Little Snitch||3.7||$17 upgrade|
|Apple XCode||8||free with registration|
|Apple OS X Server||5.2|
Programs that will not be upgraded: Some device drivers: check with your device manufacturers.
The free software CUPS drivers may work for some printers.
Make sure your printers and scanners will be supported.
Some manufacturers don't release updated drivers for their printers for months after a new OS X release.
Clean up and update software before installing.
(If your Mac is running a very old version of OS X, you must install Snow Leopard 10.6.8 first,
in order to get a version of Apple App Store that can download Sierra.
Here is Apple's how to upgrade page.)
Download Sierra from Apple Software Update or App Store. It is free.
This downloads a large file, the Sierra Installer, to your disk.
You can create a bootable installer volume on a USB key using
(But see the TidBits article "Previously Downloaded OS X Installers No Longer Work".)
Apple's license terms say you can update all your computers with one purchase.
- Get the applications on your computer ready for 10.12: apply the latest fixes.
- Delete junk files. Carefully.
- Delete Safari, iTunes, and Firefox caches, so your backup will be faster.
If you have customized your desktop background or screensaver, write down your settings.
Some Apple-provided pictures may not be available in the next version.. make a safe copy of anything you will want after upgrading.
- Empty the Trash.
- Clean up damaged and duplicate fonts.
- If you use Apache, save a copy of /etc/apache2/httpd.conf.
If you installed modules via CPAN, Macports, or Fink, make a list of them. In a Terminal window, type
perldoc perllocal | grep :: > cpan_modules.txt
port -qv installed > macports_packages.txt
- Have your software license keys handy in case you have to re-authorize products.
- De-authorize Adobe Photoshop and Illustrator.
- De-authorize your computer from iTunes.
Backup and prepare.
- If you use MySQL, backup the database with mysqldump databasename > db.sql
BACK UP YOUR HARD DRIVE to an external disk.
I used SuperDuper to clone my whole drive.
Some cautious people make two backups.
If you installed a third-party Solid State Disk (SSD),
check the manufacturer's website to see if you need to update its firmware to work with Sierra.
If you connect your Mac to the network using WiFi, select
and delete any WiFi networks you don't want to use.
(I forgot to do this, and my computer connected to a very slow network, which slowed down my install.)
The best way to handle Macports is to uninstall all the old ports and reinstall after updating the OS.
In a Terminal window, type
sudo port -fp uninstall installed
- If you use a wireless mouse or keyboard, put in fresh batteries.
- Set screen saver to NEVER, and turn off Time Machine.
- Dismount and unplug or power off external drives.
Run the OS X 10.12 installer.
If FileVault is enabled on your computer, the installer will ask for a password to unlock the disk.
It will run for about 15 minutes, then reboot, then run for about an hour, then reboot again.
(The "time remaining" will show wildly varying estimates as the installer proceeds.
Don't panic if you see a gray screen with "30 minutes remaining" for an hour.
Just let it run.)
As the update finishes, it will ask you for your AppleID password.
If Sierra asks you if you want to enable Desktop and Documents folder syncing to iCloud,
the safest thing to do is to say NO.
If you say YES, these folders will be backed up in iCloud and available on all devices, which you may not want,
and saying YES may also enable "Optimze Storage" which will delete files from your computer's drive if it gets too full.
Adam Engst's TidBITS article on Optimized Storage is very helpful.
to update to latest versions of Apple software,
then run it again to make sure all software is updated. (about another hour)
If you just downloaded the OSX installer from the Apple Store, you will have the latest version of OSX,
but this step may find additional application updates.
Do a "smoke test" to verify that your computer is working OK.
Make sure the applications you depend on are still working.
(This is where I discovered that Illustrator CS5 had problems.)
Try out the applications from Apple that were updated with the OS.
If you have trouble, restore your backup and go back to the old OS version.
When you attempt to re-authorize Adobe Photoshop and Illustrator, or the first time you execute them,
you may see an alert box that tells you that you have to install Java 6 first (even if you have Java 8 installed).
Click "more Info" and download and install the update.
Re-authorize your computer in iTunes.
Wait for Spotlight to finish indexing (may take several hours).
Performance will suck till it finishes.
Turn on Time Machine and start your backup.
The first time you run Mail.app, it will want to reformat your mail archive.
If you have a lot of saved messages, this process may take a long time.
You don't have to repair disk permissions with Disk Utility any more. In fact, you can't; the option is gone.
Restart the computer. Often this speeds things up.
Post Install Tasks
Once you are satisfied that your computer works acceptably,
and you are going to stay on Sierra,
you can make some adjustments.
If your computer seems slow or buggy, try zapping the PRAM.
If you have purchased applications that are version specific, like Cocktail, buy updates and install them.
Clean your font caches by issuing the Terminal command sudo atsutil databases -remove and restarting.
If FileVault was on, it will be on after upgrading. Check to make sure.
You will probably want to set up per-user customizations, such as your desktop background and screensaver.
After each new OS generation this is something of an adventure; functions get renamed and moved around.
I really hate the CAPS LOCK key, so I disable it.
In Sierra, this is done by opening
and changing the action for CAPS LOCK to "No Action."
(I had set this on Yosemite and it was carried over to El Capitan by the upgrade process... hope this works for Sierra too.)
, I uncheck "Scroll Direction: natural" .. it seems UNnatural to me after 30 years.
(I had set this on Yosemite and it was carried over to El Capitan by the upgrade process... hope this works for Sierra too.)
I disable or silence most Notifications.
Under Sierra, Spotlight "shows suggestions from the Internet, iTunes, App Store, movie showtimes, locations nearby, and more."
To do this, it sends your location and query to Apple servers.
You may wish to change this if you are required to keep some information private.
Change it in two places:
uncheck "allow Spotlight Suggestions" in
and uncheck "Safari & Spotlight Suggestions" in
Check that your printers work.
If your printer will not work, you may be able to get it working by selecting
deleting the printer and adding the printer again:
for some printers, this will trigger running Software Update to get new printer software.
For other printers, you will have to download the correct printer driver from the manufacturer's web site.
If you have a scanner, plug it in and power it on. Mine worked fine.
If the scanner appears in Image Capture.
For other scanners, you will have to download the correct scanner driver from the manufacturer's web site.
If manufacturer-supplied software is not available, and Image Capture does not provide enough features,
you may be able to get it working by purchasing and installing VueScan.
, remove it, and add it again.
For some scanners, this will invoke Software Update to add a driver that will let you operate the scanner with
In Terminal, type the command java.
If you don't have Java 8 installed,
this action will bring up a dialog box: click to bring up the Oracle JDK installation page in a web browser,
and trigger the installation of the Java 8 JDK from Oracle over the Internet.
Java is needed for Eclipse and for other Mac applications,
such as OpenOffice and some Adobe products, and VPN clients such as Cisco.
Java is not dangerous, if you use it to run code you trust: using it to run web page animations has had some problems.
If you use your computer for programming, install the (free) Xcode Developer Tools
by typing xcode-select --install in a terminal window,
or by installing the whole Xcode package using the App Store.
Then type sudo xcodebuild -license in a terminal window to accept the license.
MacPorts: see my instructions for MacPorts page.
Basically the procedure is to list your ports and uninstall them before upgrade,
install the OS,
and reinstall your ports.
Set PERL5LIB=/Users/myname/bin:/opt/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.22 or installs will fail with messages about variants.
If you are upgrading from Mavericks or Yosemite and have MySQL 5.6.25 installed, it will continue to work.
The Oracle web site provides version 5.7.13 for OSX 10.12.
See my MySQL instructions if you want to install it.
I had trouble getting MySQL to run until I modified my network configuration to disable IPV6.
See the instructions for upgrading CPAN.
I encountered one module that failed to install until I specified "force."
Apache web server:
Apache xxx is provided with Sierra, but is not automatically started and there is no System Preferences interface to enable it.
The new OS install will not carry over your old Apache customizations.
diff /etc/apache2/httpd.conf against your saved copy and edit as necessary.
Start Apache using the terminal command sudo launchctl load -w /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/org.apache.httpd.plist.
The -w means make it permanent across restarts.
(Or buy and install the Apple OSX Server add-on, which gets you a lot of other stuff too.)
PHP xxx is shipped with the OS but disabled in httpd.conf.
I sometimes enable PHP in order to debug programs that will be deployed in safe environments on other computers.
If you enable it, be aware of the risks of making PHP available on the Internet from your Mac, and track and install security updates.
After all installations are done, re-enable SIP by booting into the recovery environment and typing csrutil enable .
New Features and Changes
Most of the advertised features of Sierra sound uninteresting or worse to me.
Siri and ApplePay are available on macOS.
Photos will have better face recognition and search.
Apple Watch is integrated with macOS so you can use it to unlock your computer. I have no plans to buy an Apple Watch though.
Clipboard will allow you to copy on one Apple device and paste on another. This sounds like a bad idea to me.
You will be able to back your Desktop and Documents folder up to iCloud automatically,
and access them from another Mac... thus introducing new security problems.
(This feature only works if you have always-on internet connectivity.)
See https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT202303 for an explanation of Apple's security practices.
Apple has the encryption keys for encrypted backups, and says that it "never provides encryption keys to any third parties."
(This doesn't say they won't unlock it give a court order, just that they won't provide the keys.)
Supposedly Apple is working on more secure storage.
When your hard drive gets full, you can have macOS automatically copy files to iCloud and delete them from the drive,
and retrieve files back to the Mac when you need them,
assuming your Internet connection is working.
When your iCloud storage gets full, you can buy more from Apple... one terabyte costs $10/mo.
Messages will let you send very large emoji, and send video links.
Third party apps that appear to work OK:
Bugs/Gotchas in Sierra
Planning for the next version
Keep a list of the software and devices you use and depend on, so you can check that they are supported.
The next macOS version will probably release in Fall 2017.
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© 2010-2017, Tom Van Vleck
updated 2017-05-30 18:21